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10 Interesting Facts On the Race to Berlin

Race for Berlin

The advance on Berlin in early 1945 didn’t only mark the final stage of World War Two in Europe. It also saw the first open expression of the tensions between the Soviets and the Western allies, tensions which would soon evolve into the Cold War.

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Hitler’s Shameful and Unheroic Death (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)Hitler’s Shameful Death: The Fuhrer’s Unheroic Final Moments

 

: Hitler's Shameful Death

In May 1945 when Hitler’s death was announced by its Nazi propagandist, it was made to look like the German warlord died a hero. According to the Hamburg radio station’sannouncement, Hitler fought against Bolshevism to his last breath. But details about his final moments revealed Hitler died a shameful death.

Instead of dying as a warrior, Hitler was forced to commit suicide due to the defeat and humiliation he was faced with. He is alleged to have died in his bunker by either biting a cyanide capsule or shooting himself in the head. He was responsible for the deaths of millions of persons across Europe.

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Operation Jericho – Mosquito Attack on Amiens Prison – Success or Bloodbath?

by Nikola Budanovic

Operation Jericho
Operation Jericho was an air raid conducted by the RAF with an intention to free the captives of the Nazi-held Amiens prison in France. The raid happened on 18 February 1944, and though it wasn’t a large-scale operation, its precision and accuracy meant that it contributed greatly to the war effort and helped to raise the morale of the French, living under Nazi occupation.

In Amiens there was a high-security Nazi prison which held 717 prisoners, most of them being captured resistance fighters and political figures that were captured due to their support for the rebellion against Nazi occupation.

The British intelligence suggested that the Germans were already executing their prisoners and that an execution was scheduled on the 19 February 1944, for 100 prisoners. The mission was initially planned for 10 February and its original group leader was to be Air Vice-Marshall Basil Embry.

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Top 15 Worst Nazis

Worst Nazis

The Third Reich, which lasted from 1933 to 1945, was one of the most, if not the evilest regime in history.

It attracted some of the most wicked characters who, given unprecedented power over life and death, made the killing of millions of people into state policy.

Some of the most infamous and evil Nazis that were responsible for the Holocaust include:

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The Russian winter arrives on the Eastern Front

The German Army Group Centre had been able to resume their advance in winter conditions but much worse was to come.

In mid November the German offensive on Moscow had resumed when the ground had hardened sufficiently for Army Group Centre to move again. For just over a week they continued to advance against ever worsening conditions.

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Η Νύχτα των Κρυστάλλων

Η αποκληθείσα «νύχτα των κρυστάλλων» αποτελεί το πρώτο μαζικό πογκρόμ εναντίον των Εβραίων στη Γερμανία. Συνέβη τη νύχτα της 9ης Νοεμβρίου 1938 ως τις πρώτες πρωινές ώρες της επόμενης μέρας και ήταν η πρώτη ένδειξη για το τι θα ακολουθούσε αργότερα με το εβραϊκό ολοκαύτωμα. Ονομάστηκε «νύχτα των κρυστάλλων», επειδή οι Ναζί ξέσπασαν πάνω στις ιδιοκτησίες των Εβραίων, σπάζοντας τις βιτρίνες πολλών καταστημάτων τους.

Όλα ξεκίνησαν δύο μέρες νωρίτερα, όταν ένας γερμανοεβραίος, ο Χέρσελ Γκρίσπαν, σκότωσε στο Παρίσι τον γραμματέα της γερμανικής πρεσβείας Ερνστ Φον Ρατ. Ο φόνος του γερμανού διπλωμάτη χρησιμοποιήθηκε ως δικαιολογία για τις επιθέσεις που εκδηλώθηκαν εναντίον των Εβραίων σε όλη τη Γερμανία. Φαινομενικά, οι επιθέσεις αυτές ήταν αυθόρμητες, αλλά στην πραγματικότητα «ενορχηστρώθηκαν» από τη ναζιστική κυβέρνηση. Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

The Supersonic Nazi Rocket Bomber That Could Destroy Any City

by Joris Nieuwint

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It is May 1945, Nazi Germany has been defeated and the former Allies are now trying to get their hand on as much of the Nazi developed technology as they can. It is well known that Wernher von Braun and his V2 missile was the foundation of the American Space program but that was not the only rocket that the Nazis were developing.

Starting in 1942, after the United States have joined the war against the Nazi’s and Japan the Germans believed it was time to develop weapons that could strike back and hit the Americans back home. The “America bomber” project was started which focused on a long range, piston engine bomber that could cross the Atlantic ocean and hit the East coast cities. This project ultimately delivered two working prototypes, the Messerschmitt Me 264 and Junkers Ju 390, which actually took to the air but never tried to cross the Atlantic.

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TALES ABOUT A HERO AND A WAR CRIMINAL (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)A strange and lonely hero, SS Officer Kurt Gerstein who tried to save Jews

 

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One of the most horrifying testimonies from the horrors of the Holocaust was left by a conscience-stricken SS officer, Kurt Gerstein, who visited the deathcamps Belzec and Treblinka in August 1942 and witnessed the mass gassing of Jewish men, women and children. Gerstein was shocked by what he had seen. Yet, he realized that as a witness, his position was unique, and he was determined to expose what he knew to the world to stop the atrocities: “I was one of the handful of people who had seen every corner of the establishment, and certainly the only one to have visited it as an enemy of this gang of murderers …”

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Report on the German People – October 1943

 

The specter of 1918 is haunting the Nazi party, as Himmler and his Gestapo are turned loose on the German people in a desperate attempt to hold the home front together.

Our enemy has become our protector.” Thus one German visiting Stockholm reacted when told that Heinrich Himmler had been appointed Reichsminister of the Interior. Even Hitler knows that the white-headed, uncultivated, bespectacled man with the moist, slack handshake is disliked among Germans. Only absolute necessity put this man in the ugly palace on the Koenigsplatz in Berlin. About 8,000,000 foreign workers, several millions of evacuees constituted a gravely disquieting problem for the party leaders. Germany’s home front has become her second front.

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German actor Hardy Krüger fought for the SS in WWII.

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Krüger was born in Wedding, Berlin in 1928. From 1941, he went to an Adolf Hitler School at the Ordensburg Sonthofen. At age 15, Hardy made his film début in a German picture, The Young Eagles, but his acting career was interrupted when he was conscripted into the German Wehrmacht in 1944 at age 16. In March 1945, Krüger was conscripted into the 38th SS Division Nibelungen, where he was drawn into heavy fighting before being captured by American forces.

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ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΑ ΑΡΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΡΩΣΙΑ (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)13 Awesome Close Up Pictures of a German Heavy Tank «Tiger I» displayed in Russia

Tiger in Russia
 Tank front view

This is a awesome collection of close up pictures of a captured German tank Pz.Kpfw. Vl Ausf.H «Tiger I» displayed at Lenino-Snegiri Military Historical Museum in the Russian territory. The chassis number is 250427. It presumably belonged to 424 th Heavy Tank Battalion and was captured during the retreat of the Battalion in January 1945. Now the tank paint and marking the 505 th Heavy Tank Battalion.

During WWII, German Tiger tanks were primarily organized into special schwere Panzer Abteilung (roughly «heavy tank battalions»). Ten Wehrmacht and three Waffen-SS schwere Panzer Abteilung were formed.

The s.Pz.Abt. 501 (later redesignated s.Pz.Abt. 424) was formed in May 1942. It was sent to North Africa with Tiger I and Panzer III tanks in late 1942 and early 1943 and surrendered with the German defeat in Tunisia. Later, it was reformed and it was sent to Eastern Front in November 1943. It was largely destroyed in Russian offensive in summer 1944. It was reformed again and was issued with Tiger II. It returned to Eastern Front. It was redesignated as s.Pz.Abt. 424, and after heavy losses it was disbanded in early 1945.

This war museum is dedicated to the Russian 16th Army, which defended Moscow during the battle of Moscow (1941-1942). Attached to the museum building is an open air exhibit with tanks and armoured vehicles. Here you can watch this powerfull German tank, as trace of war.

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“Μπλόκο της Κοκκινιάς” 17/8/1944

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… Όταν οι ναζί εκδικούνται έναν λαό που αντιστέκεται… Φωτό και πλήρης ανάρτηση @ http://fb.me/46yVisZqo

AΙΩΝΙΑ Η ΜΝΗΜΗ ΣΤΑ ΠΑΛΛΗΚΑΡΙΑ ΜΑΣ ΠΟΥ ΠΕΣΑΝ. ΘΑΝΑΤΟ-ΞΕΚΛΗΡΙΣΜΑ ΣΤΟΥΣ ΠΡΟΔΟΤΕΣ. ΟΛΑ ΓΙΑ ΤΗ ΣΥΝΤΡΙΒΗ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΤΑΧΤΗΤΗ.

«Oι Γερμανοί μας αγαπάνε, είναι φίλοι μας» μας λένε οι ντόπιοι συνεργάτες τους. Τότε και τώρα… Μας αγαπάνε όπως τότε… στην Κοκκινιά!

Λίγο πριν από την απελευθέρωση από τους Γερμανούς, στην Κοκκινιά, γράφτηκε μία από τις πιο μαύρες σελίδες της σύγχρονης ιστορίας μας. Το Μπλόκο της Κοκκινιάς έχει μείνει στην ιστορία ως μια τραγωδία, με τις ομαδικές εκτελέσεις στην περιοχή από τα κατοχικά στρατεύματα των Γερμανών, με την πλήρη συνδρομή των ντόπιων υποστηριστών τους.

Κοκκινιά, Πέμπτη 17 Αυγούστου 1944: «Προσοχή-προσοχή! Σας μιλάνε τα τάγματα ασφαλείας. Όλοι οι άντρες από 14 έως 60 ετών να πάνε στην πλατεία της Οσίας Ξένης για έλεγχο ταυτοτήτων. Όσοι πιαστούν στα σπίτια τους θα τουφεκίζονται επί τόπου» Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

Φιντέλιο

Όπερα σε δύο πράξεις του Λούντβιχ βαν Μπετόβεν, η μοναδική του μεγάλου γερμανού συνθέτη.

O «Φιντέλιο» είναι μια δυνατή ιστορία αγάπης, με πολιτικό υπόβαθρο. Στη Σεβίλη του 18ου αιώνα, ο ισπανός επαναστάτης Φλορεστάν φυλακίζεται. Ο κακός διοικητής της φυλακής Πιζάρο διαδίδει ότι πέθανε. Η σύζυγος του Φλορεστάν, η όμορφη και πιστή Λεονώρα, δεν το πιστεύει. Μεταμφιεσμένη σε άνδρα, φροντίζει να προσληφθεί ως δεσμοφύλακας με το όνομα Φιντέλιο, για να τον σώσει.

Ο «Φιντέλιο» παίδεψε πολύ τον Μπετόβεν. «Απ’ όλα τα παιδιά μου, αυτό είναι που μου προξένησε τις μεγαλύτερες ωδίνες, που μου προξένησε τη μεγαλύτερη λύπη· γι’ αυτό είναι και το πιο αγαπημένο μου» είπε κάποτε ο συνθέτης για τη μοναδική του όπερα. Έγραψε 16 διαφορετικές παραλλαγές της πρώτης άριας του Φλορεστάν, 346 σελίδες μουσικής και 4 διαφορετικές εισαγωγές. Αρχικά, η όπερα είχε τον τίτλο «Λεονώρα», αλλά χρειάστηκε να μετονομαστεί, γιατί κυκλοφορούσαν ήδη πολλές όπερες με τον ίδιο τίτλο. Έμειναν μόνο με το όνομα αυτό οι τρεις εισαγωγές (Λεονώρα αρ. 1, 2 και 3), που παίζονται ως αυτόνομα έργα, με δημοφιλέστερη την υπ’ αριθμόν 3, που θεωρείται καλύτερη και από την Εισαγωγή του «Φιντέλιο». Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

German Maps Reveal Interesting Facts About Operation ‘Sealion’

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A never before published set of German maps have revealed some interesting facts about the Nazi plans to cross the English Channel and invade Britain.

Hitler’s plan of breaking through a country’s defences and taking over its nervous system was not only very robust and effective, it worked every time. The Second World War was not something that just happened for Hitler; he rather planned it for years and lived the dream of dominating the European continent, day and night before the War broke out. Hitler’s plan was very simple, first Luftwaffe would wipe out all potential obstacles and then the land invasion moved in to annihilate any opposition left.

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10 Most Chilling Nazi Super Weapons That Hitler Could Have Used To Win WWII

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Despite this reputation for producing very sophisticated weapons and equipment, the reality was that most Nazi super-weapons were incredibly expensive and in the vast majority of cases totally impractical. Moreover, many of them were also less refined and efficient (‘advanced’) than the experimental devices being tested in the outside world. For example, jetpack technology itself wasn’t rendered workable until 1958 and without an alternative fuel source, still remains impractical today.

Many of the super-heavy tank designs Germany came up with in the later years of the war were extremely large and slow, too expensive to build and operate in numbers, and could still be destroyed or disabled by conventional weaponry. Infantry weapons like the FG-42 or STG-44 made use of concepts that were ahead of their time, but their actual performance was spotty due to unreliable manufacturing circumstances and numerous flaws in the actual details of the designs, negating any advantages they had in the first place. Arthur C. Clarke’s short story, Superiority, succinctly summarizes many of the problems with the Nazis’ approach to the R&D of weapons and equipment.

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Top 10 Monsters of the Sky

 

We’ve flipped through the pages of aviation history to bring you ten of the biggest, heaviest, weirdest and most astounding aircraft ever built.

Antonov An-225 Mriya

Antonov_An-225_at_Farnborough_1990_airshow_(2)

With an overall length of 84 metres and a maximum takeoff weight of 640 tonnes, the An-225 is officially the longest and heaviest aircraft ever built. The An-225 was originally designed by the Antonov Design Bureau as a transport for the Buran spaceplane, but after the end of the Buran program, the An-225 became a commercial cargo aircraft.

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Coco Chanel a.k.a. Agent F-7124 – Westminster: Nazi Spy

Untitled design (5) (1)Coco Chanel and General Walter Schellenberg, the chief of the Abwehr with whom she worked.

Coco Chanel is listed as one of Time Magazine’s 100 most influential people of the 20th century. She is a fashion icon, of course, as was their likely intent, but she was also negatively influential as a Nazi sympathizer and spy for the Third Reich.

It is hard to determine with any absolute certainty all of the allegations against Chanel, as she herself spun many stories about her life.

The anti-semitic Nazi story recently revealed in Sleeping with the Enemy by Hal Vaughan, is in fact, denied by the current House of Chanel. Representatives say that Coco Chanel was merely involved in a love affair with a German aristocrat and that she had Jewish friends.

Nazi documents found within the French and British Defense Ministries verify the truth of it all. Chanel was an active agent of the Abwehr – a Nazi intelligence organization.

The Molding of an Icon

16925778001_a435bf0568_bCoco Chanel

We think of Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel as a paragon of style and as such, imagine her to be a person of class.

Interestingly, she was born to very humble and troublesome beginnings in a poorhouse charity hospital. The love child of a poor French couple, her mother’s family paid her father to tie the knot. He was a traveling salesman of sorts, selling clothes and underwear on the streets, and could not afford to keep his family of five in anything more than a one room hovel.

Her father returned home from a trip when Coco was 11 years old to find her and her sisters in a room with their mother’s lifeless body. Her father divested himself of the children, with Coco and her sisters being left at a Catholic orphanage where she remained until adulthood.

The seedy truth of it all didn’t measure up to the standards of Chanel, so for biographers and the news media, she spun varying untruths about her early years. This would not be the only thing about which she lied, and certainly not the only thing she embellished.

Her rise in social status didn’t come until years later, after stints as a seamstress and as a caberet singer, where she took on her nickname, Coco, a play on the French word for “kept woman”. She must have taken some pride in the comparison as she later made the camellia one of the icons of her design house in reference to the courtesan’s use of the flower as a discreet sign of the freedom to take a new lover.

The name became fitting when she became the kept pet of the heir of a textile empire, Etienne Balsan. After he adorned her with expense, possibly fathered a secret child with her, and introduced her to the life of society, she betrayed him with his best friend. She found the dalliance amusing and bragged about the two men fighting for her attentions.

Her career in fashion began with a hobby of making hats, and later took off when, in a possible nod to her father’s wares, she began making clothes from jersey – a material used at the time primarily for men’s underwear.

The Revelation of her Character

Whether or not her fashions were accepted due to her connections, or to her merit as a designer, she rose in both spheres through many illustrious affairs with politicians, royalty, and aristocracy, including the British Duke of Westminster.

"Hugh Grosvenor, Duke of Westminster und Coco Chanel" by Unknown - http://www.frillr.com/?q=taxonomy/term/799. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hugh_Grosvenor,_Duke_of_Westminster_und_Coco_Chanel.jpg#/media/File:Hugh_Grosvenor,_Duke_of_Westminster_und_Coco_Chanel.jpgHugh Grosvenor, Duke of Westminster und Coco Chanel – Source

An affair with the poet Pierre Reverdy is thought to be the source of Chanel’s oft quoted clever quips. Her own writing was not as witty and well crafted.

Her associations with the wealthy of the time, coupled with her intense upbringing in a convent, increased her distrust of Jews and homosexuals. She also found worker’s strikes abhorrent. In 1939, she laid off 3000 workers in retaliation of an earlier strike claiming that because of the war, it was “not a time for fashion.”

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THE ULTIMATE WHAT-IF: How the Zero won the Battle of Britain

In this subjunctive history, we look at how the Luftwaffe’s Mitsubishi A6M ‘Zero’s were a decisive weapon in the Battle of Britain.

In the Messerschmitt Bf 109 the Luftwaffe possessed possibly the World’s finest fighter aircraft at the beginning of the Second World War. It was superlative in all regards save one: range. Given the Luftwaffe’s primary role as a tactical force, operating in support of the Army in a Blitzkrieg attack, this was not seen as a major problem. Despite this, some consideration was given by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) to the problem of bomber escort over longer ranges and the initial response to this requirement was Messerschmitt’s Bf 110 which seemed to offer a fine solution and was, in its way, a fine aircraft. It was, however, a large twin-engined machine and a small but vocal group of officers within the Luftwaffe remained unconvinced by its ability to combat the latest single-engined fighters that were being constructed in ever-greater numbers in France and the United Kingdom – aircraft that would however behard pressed to deal with a machine in the class of the 109.

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Gandhi’s Letters to Adolf Hitler

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Mahatma Gandhi believed he could achieve his objectives through non-violent means. Adolf Hitler believed in the exercise of military might and the power of rhetoric. The two men could not have been more opposite in terms of philosophy, yet in 1939 as the storm clouds gathered in Europe Gandhi felt it necessary to do something.

On the 23rd of July in 1939, Gandhi wrote to Hitler, saying that he (Hitler) was “the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to a savage state”. He went on to ask if Hitler would listen to the appeal from one who had “deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success”.

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Von Der Heydte, Paratrooper, Hero of Crete, Parachuted into the Bulge, Part of the Plot to Kill Hitler?

von der Heydte

Many are aware of the plot to kill Hitler orchestrated by Colonel Schenk Count von Stauffenberg in July of 1944 as it was depicted by Tom Cruise in the movie Valkyrie.  But what the movie doesn’t depict beyond the immediate round of up of German officers are those throughout the German military who would have supported such an action but had no immediate role in the attempt.

But Count von Stauffenberg had a cousin who was a high ranking German Paratrooper officer and was loosely connected to the ring of officers who sought to bring down Hitler.  An intellectual,  Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte served in the Germany Army before the Nazi’s came to power, fulfilled his duty during the war, and would later go on to serve in the West German military as an ally to the West.

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10 Facts About Albert Speer, the Architect and “good” Nazi?

SpeerAdolf Hitler presenting Albert Speer with an Organization Todt ring in 1943

In 1931, a young, ambitious architect named Albert Speer attended a Nazi rally in Berlin. Perhaps he was truly captivated by the message of the National Socialist German Workers Party or maybe the 25-year-old saw an avenue to make a name for himself. History seems to suggest the latter, but either way, this German and Nazi official rose to the peaks of power under Adolf Hitler with a common dream of building a New Germania.

1. This close friend of Hitler rose very quickly in the Nazi Party and government

Just over one year after attending his first Nazi rally and joining the Party, Speer, now 27, returned to Berlin to help the Party. While there, his name was mentioned to Joseph Goebbels as someone who could aid in the renovation of the Nazi’s Berlin headquarters. He did help and his name began to rise.

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The Totally Inept Nazi Saboteurs Sent To Terror Bomb the USA – Achieved Nothing

Nazi Saboteurs

Although most people know Japanese soldiers invaded Alaska during World War II, most do not know Germany sent two groups of saboteurs to wreak havoc on utilities and industry on American soil.

These men sailed aboard U-boat submarines across the Atlantic, well trained, well equipped, but without any true heart and fervor for the mass destruction they had been sent to accomplish. The title Operation Pastorius was given in honor of a noted German, who settled in America.

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The 10 Of The Biggest Military Planes Ever Built

Bigger is better, this has certainly been true in military aviation history. Spurred on by the First and Second World Wars ever bigger airplanes were designed and developed, culminating in the truly gigantic H4 Hercules which flew, only a bit, in 1947. When looking at wingspan, it is yet to be superseded.

We have selected 10 that were built over the past 75 years and will be taking a closer look at them.

Junkers JU 390

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The Junker JU 390 was designed by the Nazi’s in 1942-43, it was intended to be used as a heavy transport, maritime patrol aircraft, and long-range bomber, a long-range derivative of the Ju 290. It was one of the aircraft designs submitted for the abortive Amerika Bomber project.

Only two were ever completed, the maiden flight was in October 1943 and, although 26 were ordered, it never went into production the orders were cancelled in June 1944. With the end of the Third Reich, this plane faded out of aviation history.

The plane was just over 112 feet long and had a wingspan of 165 feet and had a range of around 6000 miles.

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10 facts about Maurice Gamelin and the Fall of France 1940

Gamelin France

A quick look at the fall of France in May 1940.

1. The French Were Led by Maurice Gamelin

At the start of the Second World War, the French general staff were led by General Maurice Gamelin, an officer widely respected by both allies and opponents. A veteran of the First World War, he was credited with much of the planning that led to victory at Marne in 1914. Since then, he had tried to modernise and mechanise the army.

Gamelin

But Gamelin was suffering from neurosyphilis, whose symptoms include lapses in concentration, memory, judgement and intellect. Gamelin’s own memoirs showed paranoia and delusions of grandeur. His strategy was grounded in First World War tactics, despite changes since then. As the French were driven back by Germany, he sacked twenty front line commanders, scapegoats for his failure, rather than accept that his plans had been flawed.

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4 Auschwitz inmates successfully escaped by stealing SS uniforms & a car and driving out the front gates of the camp

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On 20 June 1942, the SS guard stationed at the exit to Auschwitz was frightened. In front of him was the car of Rudolph Höss, the commandant of the infamous concentration camp. Inside were four armed SS men, one of whom – an Untersturmführer, or second lieutenant, was shouting and swearing at him.

“Wake up, you buggers!” the officer screamed in German. “Open up or I’ll open you up!” Terrified, the guard scrambled to raise the barrier, allowing the powerful motor to pass through and drive away.

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USA: Mysterious Nazi submarine from WWII discovered in Great Lakes

USA: Mysterious Nazi submarine from WWII discovered in Great Lakes

Niagara Falls| Divers from the U.S coast guard took part this morning, in a delicate wreck recovery operation to bring to the surface a Nazi submarine discovered two weeks ago  at the bottom of Lake Ontario.

The U-boat was spotted for the first time by amateur scuba divers in late January and they had contacted the authorities. Archaeologists associated with Niagara University of  and master divers from the U.S Coast Guard were mobilized on site to determine what it was, and they soon realized that they were dealing with a German submarine that sank during World War II. Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

«Κάποια μέρα θα ξαναγίνουμε άνθρωποι»

το ημερολόγιο της άννας φρανκ
«Το ημερολόγιο της Άννας Φρανκ» είναι το πιο συγκλονιστικό ημερολογιακό κείμενο της παγκόσμιας λογοτεχνίας. Η Άννα Φράνκ γεννήθηκε σαν σήμερα στις 12 Ιουνίου 1929 στην Φρανκφούρτη της Γερμανίας. Το 1942, οι ναζί ανακάλυψαν το κρησφύγετο των Φρανκ και τους μετέφεραν στο Άουσβιτς. Η Άννα Φρανκ, η μητέρα της και η αδερφή της άφησαν την τελευταία τους πνοή στο Μπέργκεν-Μπέλσεν. Το κείμενο αυτό είναι η μαρτυρική ανθρώπινη κραυγή ενός παιδιού, ενός ανθρώπου του 20ου αιώνα, που αποτυπώνει άρτια τη φρίκη που βίωσαν εκατομμύρια άτομα από το σαρωτικό πέρασμα της ιστορίας και της ναζιστικής φρίκης πάνω από τα σώματά τους.
Απόσπασμα

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Dirlewanger: A child Molester, Violent Alcoholic, Sadist & War Criminal – Was Kicked to Death by His Guards

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Dr. Oskar Paul Dirlewanger (26 September 1895 – 7 June 1945 (certificate of death), a German military officer, was the founder and commander of the infamous Nazi SS penal unit “Dirlewanger” during World War II. Dirlewanger’s name is closely linked to some of the worst crimes of the war. He also fought in World War I as well as in the post-World War I conflicts, and in the Spanish Civil War. He died after World War II while in Allied custody, apparently beaten to death by his guards.

He is invariably described as an extremely cruel character by historians and researchers, including as “a psychopathic killer and child molester” by Steven Zaloga, as “violently sadistic” by Richard Rhodes, as “an expert in extermination and a devotee of sadism and necrophilia” by J. Bowyer Bell, and as “a sadist and necrophiliac” by Bryan Mark Rigg. World War II historian Chris Bishop called him the “most evil man in the SS.” According to Timothy Snyder, “in all the theaters of the Second World War, few could compete in cruelty with Oskar Dirlewanger.

Oskar Dirlewanger was born in 1895 in Würzburg. He enlisted in the Imperial German Army in 1913 and served as a machine gunner in the 123rd Grenadier Regiment on the Western Front of World War I, where he took part in the German invasion of Belgium and later fought in France. He won the Iron Cross 2nd Class and 1st Class medals, having been wounded six times, and finished the war with the rank of Lieutenant in charge of the machine gun company of the Infantry Regiment 121 on the Eastern Front in southern Russia and Romania. At the ceasing of hostilities the German units in Dirlewanger’s area were ordered to be interned in Romania, but Dirlewanger disobeyed orders and led 600 men from his and other units back to Germany.

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According to his German biographer Knut Stang, the war was the main factor that determined Dirlewanger’s later life and his “terror warfare” methods, as “his amoral personality, with his alcoholism and his sadistic sexual orientation, was additionally shattered by the front experiences of the First World War and its frenzied violence and barbarism.”

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Heinz Heydrich, brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich, helped Jews escape the Holocaust after reading his brother’s files after Reinhard’s death.

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Heinz Siegfried Heydrich  was the son of Richard Bruno Heydrich and the younger brother of SS General Reinhard Heydrich. After the death of his brother, Heinz Heydrich helped Jews escape the Holocaust.

Heinz Heydrich was born in Halle an der Saale to composer Richard Bruno Heydrich and his wife Elisabeth Anna Maria Amalia Krantz. Her father was Eugen Krantz, director of the Dresden Royal Conservatory.The Heydrich family were well-to-do Catholics. The father, Richard Bruno Heydrich, was an opera singer, the founder of a music conservatory in Halle, and a German Nationalist who instilled patriotic ideas in the minds of his three children. The Heydrich household was very strict and the children were frequently disciplined. As a youth, Heydrich engaged his older brother, Reinhard Heydrich, in mock fencing duels.

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Η συγκλονιστική ιστορία του εθελοντή του Αουσβιτς

Η συγκλονιστική ιστορία του εθελοντή του Αουσβιτς!

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Στις αρχές του Β ‘Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, ο περισσότερος κόσμος δεν γνώριζε τις φρικαλεότητες που λάμβαναν χώρα καθημερινά στο Άουσβιτς, το στρατόπεδο της ναζιστικής Γερμανίας – μέχρι που ο πολωνικής καταγωγής στρατιωτικός Βιτολντ Πιλεκι (Witold Pilecki) προσφέρθηκε να μπεί στο στρατόπεδο για να βοηθήσει τον μυστικό πολωνικό στρατό στην κατανόηση της λειτουργίας του.

Στις 19 Σεπτεμβρίου 1940, τα γερμανικά στρατεύματα των SS έκαναν ακριβώς αυτο που περίμενε ο Πίλεκι: Τον συνέλαβαν στους δρόμους της Βαρσοβίας και τον έφεραν στο Άουσβιτς.

Ο Πίλεκι πέρασε τα επόμενα δύομιση χρόνια στο εσωτερικό του Άουσβιτς.

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H λεηλασία των αρχαιοτήτων στην Κρήτη από τους Γερμανούς και Ιταλούς

Γράφει ο Γιώργος Τζωράκης, αρχαιολόγος

Στους απολογισμούς των δεινών που επέφεραν οι ξένοι κατακτητές στη χώρα μας κατά τη διάρκεια της κατοχής, οι καταστροφές της πολιτιστικής κληρονομιάς είναι αυτές που έχουν απασχολήσει σε μικρότερη έκταση έως σήμερα τους ερευνητές. Το ίδιο άγνωστες είναι οι καταστροφές των αρχαιολογικών θησαυρών της Κρήτης, παρά τις συνοπτικές αλλά έγκαιρες καταγραφές από τον αρμόδιο Έφορο αρχαιοτήτων Νικόλαο Πλάτωνα, μετά το τέλος του Πολέμου και τις αναφορές στην περίφημη Έκθεση Ωμοτήτων που συνέταξε ο Καζαντζάκης με τον Κακριδή και τον Καλιτσουνάκη.

Η παρούσα εργασία βασίζεται κυρίως σε αδημοσίευτα έγγραφα της κρητικής Αρχαιολογικής Υπηρεσίας και αφορά σε μεγαλύτερο βαθμό στην τύχη των αρχαιοτήτων της ανατολικής και κεντρικής Κρήτης.
Μια κατηγοριοποίηση των καταστροφών εις βάρος της πολιτιστικής κληρονομιάς της Κρήτης, στα δύσκολα χρόνια της Κατοχής, θα κατέληγε στο διαχωρισμό τεσσάρων βασικών κατηγοριών:

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The Battle of Crete

Kreta, Landung von FallschirmjägernThe Battle of Crete (German: Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek: Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during World War II on the Greek island of Crete. It began on the morning of 20 May 1941, when Nazi Germany launched an airborne invasion of Crete under the code-name Unternehmen Merkur (Operation Mercury). Greek and Allied forces, along with Cretan civilians, defended the island.

After one day of fighting, the Germans had suffered very heavy casualties, the Allied troops were confident that they would prevail against the German invasion. The next day, through miscommunication and the failure of Allied commanders to grasp the situation, Maleme airfield in western Crete fell to the Germans, enabling them to fly in reinforcements and overwhelm the defenders. The battle lasted about 10 days.

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German U-Boat Found After Being Gone for Over a Century

Artist's impression of what U-31 might have looked like. Image copyright:Military History
Artist’s impression of what U-31 might have looked like. Image copyright:Military History

 

Scans that were recently done by wind farm developers have shown something unexpected. The scans showed a submarine that was lying below the surface of the North Sea, about 55 miles east of Caister-on-Sea.

The scans revealed that it was a German U-Boat that had sunk in January of 1915. The name of the U-Boat was U-31; it had struck a mine in the North Sea and sank, taking 35 men with it. Up until now, its whereabouts were unknown.

Since this wreck is considered a military maritime grave, it will remain there untouched and unsalvaged. There are no plans for excavating the submarine.

U-31 was actually the first of 11 subs in this class. They were commissioned by the Imperial German Navy between the years of 1912 and 1915.

The U-Boats were numbered 31 to 41. Three of them had surrendered during the war and eight of them sank. Up until now, the whereabouts of the U-Boats that sank were unknown. There are still seven of them out there somewhere.

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An Interview With Stephen Harding, Author of The Last Battle When American And German Soldiers Fought The SS Together

Last Battle

Stephen Harding tells about his book “The Last Battle” which will be turned into a major motion picture, and upcoming projects.

Please tell us the background to your best-selling book “The Last Battle.”

I first heard the story of the battle at Castle Itter more than 30 years ago, while I was working as a staff historian at the U.S. Army Center of Military History in Washington, D.C. I knew it would make a great book, but jobs, family and other projects meant that I didn’t get around to beginning the necessary research until about 10 years ago. Fortunately, I was able to track down and interview the few surviving participants both in Europe and the States, and also found a treasure trove of official documents, letters and newspaper stories. Then it was just a question of finding the time to sit down and write the book.

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Last of the German Troops to Surrender – May 13th 1945

Feb 11, 2015

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Nazi Troops

Generaloberst Alfred Jodl, commander of Germany’s Wehrmacht, signed the surrender agreement with Allied forces on 7th May, 1945. The agreement declared that all Nazi troops of Germany’s land, air and naval forces should put down their arms and stop fighting.

Most of Germany’s troops obeyed, but a few regiments continued to fight until their last man, including thousands of German troops stuck in the Soviet area of Poland. These soldiers continued to fire on Soviet troops in the coastal city of Danzig, and what was left of the German 4th Army fought on at Heiligenbeil, East Prussia. A few pockets of German troops on the Greek Islands also continued to wage war until the following day.

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Χορωδία «Κόκκινου Στρατού»: Ο «Ιερός Πόλεμος» τρομάζει ακόμα…

Μια μικρή αναφορά σε έναν μεγάλο καλλιτεχνικό θρύλο, με αφορμή την απαγόρευση συναυλιών του στην Εσθονία… των «ελευθερωτών» ναζί.

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Γρηγόρης Τραγγανίδας

Σε μια ακόμη χαρακτηριστική τακτική κατασκευής «εξωτερικού εχθρού» για να «κουκουλωθούν» τα εσωτερικά προβλήματα και να αποπροσανατολιστεί η λανθάνουσα κοινωνική αγανάκτηση προχώρησε το καθεστώς της Εσθονίας, κράτους – μέλους τηςΕυρωπαϊκής Ενωσης, γνωστού για την νομιμοποίηση του ναζισμού και την διαστρέβλωση της ιστορίας του Β” Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου.

Το εσθονικό υπουργείο Αμυνας απαγόρευσε στην παγκοσμίως γνωστή, ρωσική χορωδία του «Κόκκινου Στρατού», να πραγματοποιήσει περιοδεία στην χώρα, επικαλούμενο την διακοπή των διμερών αμυντικών σχέσεων με την Ρωσία, δεδομένου ότι η χορωδία ανήκει στο ρωσικό υπουργείο Αμυνας.

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Σύμφωνα με την ανακοίνωση του υπουργείου Αμυνας της Εσθονίας, τα μέλη των ενόπλων δυνάμεων ξένων κρατών μπορούν να βρίσκονται σε εσθονικό έδαφος μόνο μετά από άδεια του υπουργείου Αμυνας. Αυτό αφορά και σε πολιτικά πρόσωπα που ανήκουν στις ένοπλες δυνάμεις ξένων κρατών.

Είναι η δεύτερη φορά που η Εσθονία απαγορεύει την είσοδο στην χορωδία και την ορχήστρα του «Κόκκινου Στρατού». Τον περασμένο Δεκέμβρη απαγορεύτηκε ανάλογη περιοδεία, παρά το γεγονός ότι και τα 30 μέλη εκείνης της αποστολής ήταν πολίτες και όχι στρατιωτικοί. Τότε, η δικαιολογία ήταν η «αποφυγή προβοκατσιών» εναντίον των καλλιτεχνών…

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ΛΕΙΨΑΝΑ ΤΟΥ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΥ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΟΥ ΠΟΛΕΜΟΥ (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)1989: FW190 Found In Forest Clearing Outside Of St Petersburg Leningrad (Watch)

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The FW190 was found in a silver birch forest 1989, near St Petersburg, it was recovered by helicopter in 1991. The current owners are the Flying Heritage Collection which is operated by Paul Allen.

Information from researchers involved with the restoration confirms that the pilot of the Fw190, Paul Rätz, was a POW and repatriated to Germany in 1949. He passed away in 1989 and his son aided in the research for the restoration.

Paul Rätz was a ground crew member before becoming a pilot with 1./JG54 in 1942 and 1943. He had several air victories and survived three crash landings. He was best known as a ground attack pilot and transferred to 4./JG54 on July 9, 1943.

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Did You Know? One of the last SS units to hold out defending Hitler’s bunker in Berlin was comprised entirely of Frenchmen

 

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The soldiers noted that the first night in Berlin was unnaturally quiet. They heard people dancing and laughing, but no sounds of fighting were audible except for the occasional distant sound of Soviet artillery.They walked from West to East Berlin, to a brewery near the Hermannplatz. Here the fighting began, with Hitler Youth firing Panzerfausts at Soviet tanks belonging to advance guards near the Tempelhof Aerodrome. Soon some members of the Sturmbataillon joined the Hitler Youth in tank hunting sorties.

Supported by Tiger II tanks and the 11th SS Panzer-Battalion “Hermann von Salza”, the Sturmbataillon took part in a counterattack on the morning of 26 April in Neukölln, a district in southeastern Berlin near the Sonnenallee. The counterattack ran into an ambush by Soviet troops using a captured German Panther tank. The regiment lost half of the available troops in Neukölln on the first day. It later defended Neukölln’s Town Hall.

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40 images of captured Sherman tanks in German hands!

by Jack – Mar 30, 2016

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All through the history of warfare, soldiers always knew how to make good use of captured equipment. Clothing, food, and inevitably, weapons. The latter were especially attractive if they were easier to obtain and of better quality then the ones issued to troops originally. Using the enemy’s weapons did mean on the other hand that ammunition and spare parts were sometimes hard to get, and in the case of vehicles, one had to be careful not to be shot by friendly forces.

During World War II the German forces made extensive use of captured equipment.  This started directly after invading Czechoslovakia and it also took place in France, Belgium and The Netherlands. I am referring to vehicles like the LT vz.38 Skoda, later used by the German 7th and 8th armoured divisions, the French Char B1bis, the Somua S-35 and the Renault R-35. [The Germans made good use of some DAF M38 armoured cars, captured in The Netherlands during the Blitzkrieg in 1940, and transported to the USSR, and deployed in the fights against the soviet partisans.

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The Führers Nephew – William Patrick Hitler – Fought In The US Navy!

Yes, that is right, Adolf Hitler wasn’t the only one fighting in WWII. There was also Heinz Hitler and William Patrick Hitler, Adolf’s Nephews

WP HItler 3Adolf Hitler referred to William Patrick as “my loathsome nephew”.

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ΠΕΡΙ ΤΗΣ ΣΩΡΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΧΙΤΛΕΡ ΚΑΙ ΙΑΤΡΙΚΑ ΠΑΡΑΛΕΙΠΟΜΕΝΑ (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)Whatever Happened to Hitler’s Body?

 

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April 30, 1945 – the Soviet Army moves quickly through the city of Berlin, the capital of Germany and the home base of the Third Reich. Beyond the city’s limits are the Allied forces, sweeping through the rest of the country, waging and winning battles as the Nazi army is brought to its knees.

Adolf Hitler still rules Germany, still holds the title of Fuhrer over the Third Reich, but this day will be his last. By this date, the Nazi regime was collapsing, and its leader would not see the month of May – or the end of World War II.

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The Greek battleship Kilkis – Sunk by Stuka bombers on April 23, 1941

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Battleship Kilkis was a 13,000 ton Mississippi-class battleship originally built by the US Navy in 1904–1908.

As Mississippi she was purchased by the Greek Navy in 1914, and renamed her Kilkis, along with her sister Idaho, renamed Lemnos. Kilkis was named for the Battle of Kilkis-Lahanas, a crucial engagement of the Second Balkan War. Armed with a main battery of four 12 inch guns, Kilkis and her sister were the most powerful vessels in the Greek fleet.

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Ο Φράνκο και το «πραξικόπημα – οπερέτα» των Συνταγματαρχών

Λέγεται ότι όταν έγινε γνωστό στη Μαδρίτη το πραξικόπημα των συνταγματαρχών της Αθήνας (21 Απριλίου 1967), ένας υπασπιστής ξύπνησε τον ισπανό δικτάτορα Φράνκο για να τον ενημερώσει:
– Στρατηγέ, έγινε δικτατορία στην Ελλάδα, φέρεται να είπε.
– Πόσοι είναι οι νεκροί; ρώτησε ο Φράνκο.
– Κανένας.
– Και γι’ αυτό με ξύπνησες; Αυτό δεν είναι πραξικόπημα, είναι οπερέτα…

Rare Reggiane Re.2002 “Ariete” Italian WW2 fighter Aircraft Found Intact Near Greece

 

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A freediver shot an underwater video of an Italian Reggiane Re.2002 Ariete fighter aircraft, which was found recently in excellent condition in Corfu Island, Greece.

It is just the second WW2 Italian aircraft found in Greece, the other one being a unique SM79 “Sparviero”, in Poros Island, Greece. Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

Stalin’s son Yakov Dzhugashvili captured by the Germans. He ‘died’ in a PoW camp

 

Yakov Dzhugashvili captured by the Germans, 1941

 

Yakov Dzhugashvili captured by the Germans, 1941

Yakov Dzhugashvili, Stalin’s elder son, served in the Red Army during the Second World War, and was captured, or surrendered, in the initial stages of the German invasion of the USSR. There are still many contradictory legends in circulation about the death of Yakov Dzhugashvili, as there are about all the important events in his life.

Yakov, born in 1907, was the son of Stalin’s first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze. His mother died a few months later, and he was raised by his maternal uncle, who urged him to acquire higher education. He travelled to Moscow, learned Russian (his native language was Georgian) and eventually graduated from a military academy. Yakov and his father Stalin never got along. Allegedly once Stalin referred to Yakov as a “mere cobbler.” Their relationship came to a breaking point in 1925, when Yakov began living with the daughter of an Orthodox priest, Zoya Gunina. The outraged Stalin, however, refused to accept the young woman, who had formerly been a classmate of Yakov. As a result of the permanent conflicts, the deeply hurt young man attempted suicide. The bullet pierced his lung but missed his heart. This prompted the dictator to make the sarcastic remark: “You couldn’t even do this properly.” Διαβάστε περισσότερα…

Should Hungary Make Reparations to Holocaust Survivors?

Budapest, Festnahme von Juden

Fourteen survivors of the Holocaust sued the Hungarian government and its national train company, MAV, last month. The charge was that they had cooperated with the Nazi government to deport over 500,000 Hungarian Jews and had seized their property during World War II. The lawsuit is intended to make a fund to support Hungarian Holocaust survivors and their families. It could be worth billions of dollars if it is successful.

It is hard to imagine, though, how such a fund could repay the survivors for everything they lost.

Each survivor, has a different attitude to the issue of compensation. Nowhere is this clearer than the case of two Hungarian Jewish cousins, members of the de  Jánosi’, who lost everything and nearly everyone they knew to the Nazis in World War II.

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April 1941: Operation “Marita” and the Greek “Maginot Line” that cost the nazi Germans dearly

by Pierre Kosmidis – 

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On October 28th, 1940, fascist Italy launched an unprovoked and ultimately disastrous attack on Greece which signaled it’s entry in World War Two.

Following the stalemate of their Italian allies in the Albanian front and the victories of the Greeks in the mountainous regions of northern Greece and Albania against the Italian army, the German dictator Adolf Hitler initiated the preparation for Operation “Marita”.

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Lithuanian Town Want To Name Street After Priest Who Organized Gang That Murdered Jews

 

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Members of the Lithuanian Jewish community have called for the government to disclose the contents of a document that lists citizens who are alleged to have been Nazi collaborators during WWII. Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union in 1941, when the German invaded that country in Operation Barbarossa. Many anti-Soviet Lithuanians sided with the German invaders.

In the years since the end of the war Lithuania has often been under scrutiny for its questionable choices in the citizens to whom it has awarded honours. Recently, officials of the town Moletai announced their intention to name a street after a priest who was allegedly responsible for organising a gang that killed Jewish residents of the city in 1941.

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ΚΤΗΝΩΔΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΤΑΠΙΕΣΗ ΣΤΗΝ ΚΑΤΟΧΗ:ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΕΣ (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)Ο σημαδεμένος της Μουσιωτίτσας. Το 11χρονο αγόρι που πυροβολήθηκε στο πρόσωπο από τους Γερμανούς και επέζησε στη σφαγή του χωριού του….

Ο σημαδεμένος της Μουσιωτίτσας...
       Στις 24 Ιουλίου του 1943 ένα γερμανικό αεροπλάνο έκανε μια χαμηλή αναγνωριστική πτήση από το χωριό Μουσιωτίτσα Ιωαννίνων και έριξε προκηρύξεις. Οι κάτοικοι έτρεξαν να διαβάσουν την προειδοποίηση ότι όποιος θα έβγαινε από το σπίτι του θα τουφεκιζόταν. Πολλοί δεν πίστεψαν την απειλή, η οποία αποδείχθηκε αληθινή. Η σφαγή που προκάλεσαν στη Μουσιωτίτσα οι «επίλεκτοι» της Εντελβάις ήταν ανείπωτη. Η περιοχή θρήνησε συνολικά 152 θύματα. Οι Γερμανοί σκότωσαν ακόμα και μωρά μέσα στις κούνιες τους.
     Η ομαδική εκτέλεση έγινε στην τοποθεσία Σπιθάρι και οι επιζώντες ήταν αδύναμοι να θάψουν τους νεκρούς τους. Η αποσύνθεση και τα άγρια ζώα ήταν επιπλέον απειλές για όσους γλύτωσαν. Έτσι η λύση ήταν αν τους ρίξουν μέσα σε ένα πηγάδι. «Άκουσα την σφαίρα σαν να ήταν όνειρο» Ένας από τους επιζώντες ήταν ο Νίκος Αναγνώστου. Αυτός που τον σημάδεψε στο κεφάλι ήθελε να τον σκοτώσει επί τόπου. Η σφαίρα τον πέτυχε στο πρόσωπο αλλά ο 11χρονος δεν πέθανε. Βαριά τραυματισμένος έδωσε μάχη για τη ζωή και την κέρδισε. Έζησε για πάντα σημαδεμένος στο πρόσωπο και την ψυχή του….

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Ο ήρωας του Ρούπελ που σκότωσε 232 Γερμανούς

ιτσιοςΣτις 6 Απριλίου του 1941 εκδηλώθηκε στις 5:15 το πρωί -45 λεπτά πριν από την προβλεπόμενη ώρα σύμφωνα με τη γερμανική διακοίνωση- η επίθεση της ναζιστικής Γερμανίας κατά της χώρας μας, στα οχυρά της Θράκης και της Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας.

Η γερμανική διακοίνωση είχε επιδοθεί νωρίτερα στον Πρωθυπουργό Αλέξανδρο Κορυζή από τον Γερμανό πρεσβευτή στην Αθήνα, πρίγκιπα Έρμπαχ. Ο Κορυζής είπε το δεύτερο ΟΧΙ, αυτή τη φορά στην ιταμή ναζιστική πρόκληση. Η γερμανική επίθεση κατά της Ελλάδας αποτελεί συνέχεια του ελληνοϊταλικού πολέμου, που ξεκίνησε την 28η Οκτωβρίου 1940 με την ιταλική επίθεση στα ελληνοαλβανικά σύνορα.

Η γερμανική επίθεση είχε την κωδική ονομασία «Μαρίτα» και η εντολή για τη σχεδίασή της είχε δοθεί από τον Χίτλερ στις 13 Δεκεμβρίου 1940.

Ηρωική χαρακτηρίστηκε από όλους –ακόμα και από τον εχθρό- η μάχη των Ελλήνων στρατιωτών στα οχυρά, ενώ δεν είναι λίγες και οι ιστορίες ανδρείας, γενναίων στρατιωτών και αξιωματούχων που συγκινούν μέχρι και σήμερα. Μία από αυτές, είναι και η ιστορία του έφεδρου λοχία Δημήτρη Ίτσιου, ο οποίος ήταν επικεφαλής της αντίστασης στο πολυβολείο, Π8 στην Ομορφοπλαγιά του Μπέλες πάνω από το χωριό Άνω Πορρόια Σερρών.

Ο Ίτσιος, μαζί με πέντε φαντάρους, αποφάσισαν να πολεμήσουν μέχρι το τέλος, καθώς το συγκεκριμένο πολυβολείο κάλυπτε την υποχώρηση των Ελλήνων στρατιωτών και η αποστολή τους ήταν να αντέξουν όσο περισσότερο μπορούσαν, προκειμένου να κερδίσουν όσο το δυνατόν περισσότερο χρόνο.

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