Αρχική > Διεθνή - Γεοπολιτικά, Ιστορικά, Κοινωνικά, Κοινωνική μηχανική, Ναζισμός > German Youth and Nazis: Supporters and Registers (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

German Youth and Nazis: Supporters and Registers (Μικρή συλλογή άρθρων)

Α)League of German Girls, the Nazi Organisation To Teach Girls Their Duties As Bearers Of Aryan Heirs (Pictures)

 

BDM, GymnastikvorführungBDM Girls march by during a gymnastics exercise – 1941

The League of German Girls (German: Bund Deutscher Mädel, BDM) was the girls’ wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth. It was the only female youth organization in Nazi Germany.

Eventually, the League consisted of 3 sections. Young Girls for ages 10 to 14, the League Proper for girls aged 14 to 18 and the Faith and Beauty society for girls ages 17 to 21. The Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) had its origins as early as the 1920s, in the first Mädchenschaften or Mädchengruppen.

In 1930, it was founded as the female branch of the Hitler Youth movement. After the Nazi’s were defeated the organization ceased to exist and was outlawed by the Allies in October 1945.

What follows are pictures of the BDM during the early stages of Nazism up to 1943, you can click on the pictures for a larger version.

Bundesarchiv_Bild_102-14911,_Berlin,_Lustgarten,_Aufmarsch_der_HJBDM Girls march in a parade with 80.000 BDM and Hitler Youth in the Lüstgarten in Berlin, 19 August 1933

Bundesarchiv_Bild_133-130,_Worms,_Jungmädelbund,_WerbungBDM Girls put up a recruitment poster, it says “Girls join us, you belong to us” in 1933

HJ und BDM, SonnwendfeuerBDM Girls and boys from the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) celebrate Midsummer in 1933.

Worms, BDM-Mädchen bei NähabendBDM Girls are sewing clothes in an “Arbeitsraum”, work room in 1933.

445px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-J02938,_Berlin,_Nähstube_des_BDM (1)August 1942, the BDM girls are sewing clothes. Not the Hitler poster on the wall wit the caption “we follow you”.

Worms, BDM-Mädchen beim MaikäfersammelnBDM grirls in a forest outside Worms looking for May Beetles, 1933.

551px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-5592-04A,_Porträt_BDM-Mädchen

510px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_119-5592-15A,_Porträt_BDM-Mädchen

Potsdam, Mädchen in der FührerinnenschulePortraits of a BDM Girls, 1933 / 1935

BDM, Antreten zum AppellBDM Girls getting ready for a parade at an unknown location, 1933.

Worms, Aufmarsch der Deutschen JungmädelBDM Girls march in a parade in Worms, 1933.

Bundesarchiv_Bild_152-11-30,_KZ_Dachau,_Besuch_von_BDM-FührerinnenOne of the more sinister pictures, BDM girls visit Dachau Concentration camp in 1936

Berlin, Olympiastadion, HJ-KundgebungBDM Girls and Hitler Youth in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin celebrate Labourday – May 1st 1937

Worms, Hitlerjugend, Appell zur MaifeierOn the same day in Worms, different Hitler Youth and BDM girls present the Hitler salute.

China, Tientsin, HJ und BDM Vereidigung

Bundesarchiv_Bild_137-049191,_Wusih,_OstereiersuchenBDM and Hitleryouth on a visit to Wuxi, Jiangsu, China. The German Caption says they are on a Easter egg hunt at the second picture.

Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2005-0502-502,_Münchener_Abkommen,_Abreise_MussolinisThe BDM was also used in more formal settings, here a BDM girl presents flowers to the Italian Dictator Mussolini on the railway station in Munich. Also visible are Goring (right) and Hitler (right center) . 30 September 1938.

BDM in der LandwirtschaftSeptember 1939, the war has started so many men are at the front. The BDM is called upon to help work the land and replace the men.

Verleihung des Ehrenkreuzes der deutschen MutterIn 1943 when Hitler was fighting his “total war” more men were needed thus it was necessary for the German mothers to have as many children as possible. Here a mother is presented the “Ehrenkreuz der deutschen Mutter”. The cross of honor for German Mothers was presented in Bronze for having 4 children,  Silver for 6 children and Gold for 8 children. May 15th 1943.

800px-Mutterkreuz1940 German_Mothers_CrossA signed certificate and a closeup of the “Cross of Honor for German Mothers”.

Familie mit 12 KindernA large family as the Nazi party loved to see it, a Nazi official, the mother wearing the Mother Cross and their 12 kids. 5 of them in the German Army (wehrmacht) and 1 in the Reichs-Arbeidsdienst, the German Workers force. The oldest girl is a member of the BDM.

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B)Edelweiss Pirates: Nazi Germany’s Youth Resistance With Song, Dance And Sabotage

 

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    Every generation has its punk rock all-stars and the Edelweiss Pirates, the counter culture to the Hitler Youth, bring that to mind with an added heroic edge. They weren’t all of noble intention, but they did thwart Nazi control knowing the risks, and that’s something.

    This sort of confederation of smaller groups that were lumped together under a common name was known for basically being the opposite of the Hitler Youth. Ranging from 12-17 years old, they avoided being conscripted, usually by dropping out of school, and took on a social mission of doing everything they weren’t supposed to be doing as young Aryan men, or in a few cases, young Aryan women.

    They drank, they smoked, danced to Jazz and Blues, and went hiking and camping – which was strictly forbidden. Free in the wilderness, they were able to cut up and sing verboten songs and do as they pleased. They listened to the BBC news for outside information when listening to a foreign radio station was illegal. The Pirates had fun with criminal pranks like pouring sugar in petrol tanks, graffiti, and general vandalism.

    Some groups took on specific names, like The Navajos, the Kittelbach, and the Farhtenstenze (traveling dudes). While that seems to parallel a gang culture, unlike gangs, they respected and supported each other. Most of them wore a badge picturing the edelweiss flower, and there were shared fashion trends among the groups.

    They wore colorful and patterned clothes, some wore lederhosen, they kept their hair longer than the norm and wore white stockings and neck scarves. Once they caught the eye of the Gestapo, many had their heads shaved in punishment, and this became an identifying feature, but not a universal one.

    Hitler’s power may lay us low,
    And keep us locked in chains,
    But we will smash the chains one day,
    We’ll be free again
    We’ve got fists and we can fight,
    We’ve got knives and we’ll get them out
    We want freedom, don’t we boys?
    We’re the fighting Navajos!

    They didn’t just have fun – they committed subversive acts that were a bit more targeted than singing a few songs. Allied planes would drop propaganda, and the Edelweiss Pirates would make sure they weren’t scooped up and thrown away. The Pirates collected them and shoved them in letterboxes and under doors.

    They were feared by the Hitler Youth and local Nazi officials because a very few Pirates were known to have ambushed these groups and beat them. Some groups claim to have only wanted to be left alone by the Hitler Youth and that they had nothing against the boys conscripted, but a common phrase was “Eternal War on the Hitler Youth.”

    Although many adults saw them as punk kids too lazy to work and up to nothing but mischief, they tried and succeeded at making an impact against the regime. They destroyed and sabotaged Nazi equipment and ammunition. They stole supplies and bicycles from the Hitler Youth. They assisted deserters of the German Army.

    They were also often armed, killing one army informer and doing several armed raids on Nazi military depots. The Pirates derailed ammunition trains and supplied adult resistance groups with food, supplies, and ammunition that they had stolen or looted.

    Many of their acts were kind – they gave refuge to concentration, labor, and POW camp escapees.

    Captured Pirates faced much more than a slap on the wrist, and yet knowing the consequences, they continued their resistance. Parents also came under scrutiny when Pirates were caught, although many were unattached to their families or didn’t have them at all.

    At first, punishments were meant to demoralize them. Heinrich Himmler knew that the Pirates took pride in their subversive appearance, particularly their hairstyle, so when they were captured they went for a short while to a detention camp and their heads were shaved when they were released.

    We march by banks of Ruhr and Rhine
    And smash the Hitler Youth in twain.
    Our song is freedom, love and life,
    We’re the Pirates of the Edelweiss.

    Over time, however, punishments became more and more severe and eventually ended in death. At first it was severe beatings (girls fared no better than guys), then concentration camps or solitary confinement or both, and finally public hangings. Thirteen youths were hanged in Cologne and of those thirteen, six were Pirates.

    Memorial in Cologne for the hanged youth
    Memorial in Cologne for the hanged youth

    Following the war, they denounced any political affiliation with the Allies or the communists saying that politics shouldn’t take center stage. In fact, because they did not conform and remained social outcasts, the Allies took a negative view of them.

    Perhaps in some cases, it was justified as there were reports of groups identifying themselves as Pirates that were terrorizing displaced Russians and Poles and possibly women on Allied bases. However, that would have only been a very small subset if they were even affiliated at all.

    As for their fate, Pirates that fell on the Soviet side of the wall were automatically sentenced to 25 years in prison just for being suspected of association. Even after the fall of the Berlin Wall, surviving Pirates still have criminal records that state that they were guilty of war crimes. They were finally annulled in 2005.

    In that year, they were finally officially recognized as resistance fighters. A female Pirate, Gertrud Koch (a.k.a. Mucki – her Pirate code name) said, “After the war there were no judges in Germany so the old Nazi judges were used and they upheld the criminalization of what we did and who we were.”

    Jean Juelich, who had escaped the hanging in Cologne, felt the recognition was long overdue. “This should have happened 40 years ago . . . The families of those who were murdered have been denied any kind of justice until now. They were killed as criminals.”

    At the time of the annulment, there were five remaining members in Cologne including Koch and Juelich. Most have since died. That day, however, they performed the songs of the Pirates in remembrance and celebration.

    Edelweißpiraten_Jülich_Koch

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edelweiss_Pirates

    http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/nazi-germany/the-edelweiss-pirates/

    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/fritz-theilen-member-of-the-edelweiss-pirates-the-children-who-resisted-hitler-7707378.html

    http://www.raoulwallenberg.net/saviors/others/edelweiss-pirates-story/

    http://www.teenagefilm.com/archives/archive-fever/edelweiss-pirates

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/1492771/Teenage-rebels-who-fought-Nazis-are-honoured-at-last.html

http://www.warhistoryonline.com

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